1) "I don't use magnets, I don't know enough about them and I'm worried I will harm the artifact, OR I'm afraid the magnet(s) won't securely hold the artifact and it may slip or fall."
2) "I use magnets! But, I don't know too much about them other than I put the artifact against a magnetic surface and then I put a bunch of magnets on the surface (probably more than I have to, but I want to make sure the artifact won't slip or fall)."
My own use of magnets started when I used them to secure an object to a mount. Truthfully, at the time, I knew so very little about magnets, yet I was keenly aware that I needed to be cautious about using any that were too strong for fear of causing damage. The artifact I mounted was a perfect choice because it was sturdy and there was no risk of crushing or marring any surface. The magnets were placed on the mount with metal washers placed inside of the object. A layer of protective Mylar was placed between the magnet and the object.
When choosing the type of magnet to use for this first project, I knew that some magnets were stronger than others, especially that there were these really strong magnets called "rare earth". I knew magnets needed a receiving material - a metal that they could "stick" to; and that some metals created a stronger "stick" than others. But truly what was physically happening within the magnet or the receiving metal was sort of magic. I needed to understand this magic and I needed to be able to create a mount that was SAFE for whatever artifact I was working with. As I began to understand magnets, I realized that the possibilities were endless; mounting textiles, upholstery work, I could think of so many opportunities where I could employ magnets.
|The tufting of a seat using rare earth magnets.|
The next project that was perfect for magnet use was to create the tufting on a chair. Disk shaped magnets were the perfect "button" for the tufting site. Strong magnets made a nice tuft as they were strongly attracted to the washer embedded in the seat layers, and the fabric was a reproduction so there was no risk to harming a textile artifact. When the project was completed I was completely hooked on magnets. I had done countless mock-ups in preparation for the tufting, trying various magnet sizes and strengths, pairing these magnets with various sized metal washers, and determining how the fabric layers in between their junction effected the attraction.
Did I make mistakes in the beginning? Yes, of course. For instance, I had no idea that extreme heat would have an impact on how rare earth magnets functioned. So, in an early project I had the great idea of using hot melt glue to affix foam to the magnet, not knowing that the heat of the glue was too hot and made the magnet useless! How sad to find that I had ruined a few magnets before I realized what was going on.
Also, if I redid some early mounts, I would have ALWAYS put the receiving metal inside of the artifact, never the magnet. Only because reusing rare earth magnets is more desirable than leaving them inside artifacts because of their cost and the environmental damage caused by the mining of these materials. Also, unless the artifact is clearly labeled "magnet within" (or some other kind of warning), it could be placed too near a metallic surface where an attraction could be made, not a pleasant surprise for the person handling the artifact.
Magnets have been around for a very long time. Articles citing artifacts mounted with magnets appear as early as 1988. These were all important early "pioneer" projects, and as art conservation projects using magnets moves forward in time, the complexity of the magnets and materials grows.
To understand and sort out all of the magnet information I had gathered, I began to create charts to reference information I might need again. The charts are listed below and are linked to the image of the chart itself.
- comparison of types of magnets (and their performance properties)
- a list of art conservation projects using magnets (compiled in 2012)
As I began to understand that there are three parts to a magnet system: 1) the magnet, 2) the space between the magnet and the metal receiving material, called "the gap", 3) the receiving metal; I realized that this was more easily understood if diagramed in a cross section. Below, are the two most requested diagrams from various projects to illustrate each of the components of a magnetic mount and how they work together.
1) Hunzinger chair tufted with the use of Rare Earth magnets:
2) Hanging system for textiles using "L" bracket
Word to the wise:
There are a few things that I have learned that I would strongly advise when using magnets:
1) Don't use hot melt glue. Instead, read this invaluable information about how to safely glue rare earth magnets from the wonderful and knowledgeable people at K & J Magnetics.
2) Think twice if you are tempted to use the products labelled "magnetic paint" to simply paint a wall and then affix magnets to it to hang an artifact. While this may seem okay when you test it, mathematically there is just not enough strong magnetic attraction created in this type of a system and because of that simple fact, it would be the most likely system to fail.
3) Fingers get easily and painfully pinched when they inadvertently find themselves between two strong magnets that are "jumping" together. If you are using strong rare earth magnets, keep them in containers where they can be separated and handled one at a time - contact lens cases are PERFECT!
Finally, I have compelled a list containing the references for some books or articles written about magnets, especially the aspects of their environmental impact. I have used many of these as a reference in my papers, talks, workshops, or articles. Additionally if you will find a comprehensive list of my magnet articles they can also be accessed on my website, under the PUBLICATIONS tab.
Also, if you have not picked up a copy, my most recently read magnet book is: "RARE; The High Stakes Race to Satisfy Our Need for the Scarcest Metals on Earth" by Keith Veronese. Get yourself a copy and read it!
Gwen Spicer is an art conservator in private practice. Spicer Art Conservation specializes in textile conservation, object conservation, and the conservation of works on paper. Gwen's innovative treatment and mounting of artifacts is unrivaled. To contact her, please visit her website.
Look for Gwen's book, "Magnetic Mounting for Art Conservators and Museums", to be out in 2018.